*Replacing water in concrete with ice to both dilute the mixture and at the same time use the ice’s latent heat to absorb the reaction heat;
*It is important that temperature of the raw concrete is controlled so that these stuctures can withstand tensions that are created in finished concrete structure. Excessive internal heat-up of the raw concrete especially in hot climates has to be avoided in order to prevent cracks and maintain proper strength, ensure consistent quality, and eliminate cracks;
*On mixing cement used in concrete with water heat is liberated which is known as the heat of hydration formed by the exothermic chemical reaction between cement and water. This heat of hydration raises the temperature during the curing process by up to 25° causing an increase of volume. After the curing the concrete cools down again reducing its volume and thus naturally causing cracks eventually. Therefore the initial pouring temperature should be lowered so much that the maximum temperature during the curing process does not exceed a certain temperature determined by the consultants.
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